Step 1: Describe the system of governance and powers

The first important step is to briefly explain the system of governance that operates in the country before mapping the relevant policy fields that affect private enterprises. This is important because there will be readers of your work – within the country and outside – that don’t fully understand these arrangements. This should also include a description of the powers and responsibilities of government structures at the national, provincial, district, and local levels.

See Box 2 for an illustration of the possible range of systems of governance and powers.

Box 2: Range of systems of governance and powers
Level of governmentKinds of instrumentsInstruments used (Example)Authority (Example)
Central National polity Constitution Parliament, Plebiscite, Referendum
National policies Presidential Decree President
Executive Order President
Parliamentary Decree National Parliament
White Paper National Parliament
National Policy National Cabinet
Legislation National Law National Parliament
Code National Parliament or Cabinet
Regulation Regulations and procedures National Parliament
Ordinance Line-ministries
Circular Line-ministries
Administrative Order Line-ministries
Provincial Provincial Policies Provincial Strategies Provincial Development Council
Provincial Strategies Provincial Council
Legislation Provincial Laws Provincial Legislature
Regulation Provincial Regulations and Ordinances Provincial Bureaucracy
Local Local Policies Local Government Plans Local Authority Council
Local Development Strategy Local Government Council
Legislation Bylaws Local Government Council
Regulations Ordinance Local Government Council
Administration Procedures and inspections Local Government Bureaucracy