5. ENTREPRENEURIAL CULTURE

FRAMEWORK CONDITIONS

1. Generally speaking, is entrepreneurial activity more 'demand-driven' (i.e. driven by the pull of a given market demand or promising market opportunity) or is it categorized by high levels of necessity-driven entrepreneurship (i.e. individuals are pushed into entrepreneurship because all other options for work are either absent or unsatisfactory)?

START UP SERVICES

2. Is there an adequate support system (e.g. information on licensing, etc.) for those seeking to establish business?

3. Is assistance to start up enterprises (such as basic information on legislation, access to credit, business development services, etc.) easily available, and equally so for both women and men?

4. Are there explicit local level strategies to promote entrepreneurial activity in order to enter markets competitively?

5. Are there effective business support agencies at the national, regional, and municipal levels and are they inclusive of women and young entrepreneurs as beneficiaries?

6. Are there 'one stop shops', in terms of information (on laws, regulations) and guidance? Is such information disseminated in an easy to understand format (e.g. in local languages and distributed regionally)?

EDUCATION SYSTEMS

7. Is the importance of entrepreneurship and the role of business in society effectively communicated in first and second level education systems and through curricula?

8. Are there entrepreneurship education courses in teacher-training institutes?

9. Are there facilitative links between teachers and local companies?

10. Is training in creating or managing small, new, or growing businesses incorporated within the educational and training system at all levels?

11. At primary and secondary school level, is entrepreneurship education training incorporated?

CREATING THE CONDITIONS FOR INNOVATION

12. Does national policy encourage and foster the cycle of innovation that will lead to more private sector investment in research and development, the development and utilization of new technologies, knowledge spill-overs, increased productivity, and expanded market opportunities that will lead to economic growth?

13. Do you see in entrepreneurs more direct innovation, i.e. entrepreneurs introducing new product-market combinations or innovations that are copied by incumbents?

14. Is there sufficient investment in the basic sciences in universities?

15. Are the use of copyright and patents easy for entrepreneurs to understand?

16. Are there sufficient incentives for strong links between public research organizations and the private sector?

17. Is there collaboration between private enterprises and tertiary institutions?

18. Have national authorities established a support system for supporting innovation-related activities (e.g. technology and innovation centres, technology incubators, innovation funds, etc.) and a national system of awards to recognize new ideas and innovative firms?

BANKRUPTCY LAWS

19. Are bankruptcy laws sufficient to protect first and foremost, not be punitive towards business failure?

20. Is the 'risk of failure' in terms of monetary costs a significant deterrent to entrepreneurship?

21. Do bankruptcy laws act as a significant barrier to start up?

INCENTIVE POLICIES

22. Do government procurement procedures explicitly target young enterprises and SMEs?

23. Would lowering employment protection have a beneficial impact on the rates of entrepreneurial activity?

  • Is employment protection legislation seen as a barrier to employment in young firms?

24. Are there legislative barriers that limit the potential of entrepreneurs to develop and expand their businesses? (E.g. women and young people in particular).

FINANCIAL SUPPORT

25. Are there financial resources, equity, and debt, available for new and growing firms, including grants and subsidies to start ups and young firms?

26. Are women at all disadvantaged in terms of accessing financing for their businesses?

27. Are there microfinance options available?

GOVERNMENT POLICIES

28. Generally speaking, are new and growing firms prioritized in government policy, including start-ups by women and young people?

29. Are the needs of new and growing firms taken into account in regulation design?

RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT TRANSFER

30. Is national research and development contributing to new commercial opportunities?

31. Do specific opportunities exist in this space for new, small, and growing firms?

COMMERCIAL AND PROFESSIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE

32. Is there a widespread presence of commercial, accounting, and other legal services and institutions that allow or promote the emergence of new, small, or growing businesses?

33. Is there sufficient competition amongst these providers?

INTERNAL MARKET OPENNESS

34. Are new firms free to enter existing markets and is there evidence of this?

ACCESS TO PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

35. Is there ease of access to available physical resources: communication, utilities, transportation, land, and space – at a price that does not discriminate against new, small, or growing firms?

CULTURAL & SOCIAL NORMS

36. Do existing social and cultural norms encourage, or do not discourage, individual actions that may lead to new ways of conducting business or economic activities?

37. Are there social and cultural barriers that limit the potential of entrepreneurs (particularly women and young entrepreneurs) to develop and expand their businesses?

38. Does society place a much higher value on 'job employment' rather than that of entrepreneurship, in that it is seen as 'not a proper job' (in the sense that more value is attached towards becoming an accountant, teacher or doctor)?

39. Is the 'risk of failure' in terms of stigma a significant deterrent to entrepreneurship?