15. SOCIAL JUSTICE AND SOCIAL INCLUSION

SOCIAL STABILITY

1. Are there high levels of inequality, which preclude large segments of society from participating effectively in economic activity?

2. Are policy frameworks predicated on promoting equality of opportunity, in terms of access to markets, resources, and an unbiased regulatory environment for businesses and individuals?

3. Does national policy in real terms aim to improve access for all citizens' participation in the market, either as entrepreneurs or employees, i.e. through economic opportunities?

4. What impact does labour legislation have on certain groups of workers (e.g., young, female, older, disabled)?

VULNERABLE GROUPS

5. Is the labour legislative framework facilitative of maximum labour market participation?

6. Is there discriminatory legislation or practices that serve to exclude certain groups from labour market activity?

EFFECTIVE LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION: WOMEN

7. Is there effective legislation to combat gender discrimination in the labour market?

8. Are there any of the following obstacles to female participation in the labour market?

  • Lack of child care (state-run, private operators, etc.);
  • Working time legislation;
  • Culture in the workplace;
  • Anti-discrimination legislation;
  • Training to assist re-entry of returning women to labour market;
  • Leadership from the business community;
  • Maternity or paternity leave (paid or unpaid).

EFFECTIVE LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION: YOUTH

9. What will motivate young people to seek productive employment?

10. Are they informed about the job possibilities of today and what employment and the world of work requires of them?

11. Do they know of the linkages between education and employment, and the return they can achieve from that linkage?

12. Are those linkages relevant to industry's needs of young people as prospective employees today, and in the future?

13. Is there a minimum wage for young people?

  • Does it impact positively on hiring decisions for young people?

EFFECTIVE LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION: OLDER WORKERS

14. Are there measures to increase the participation of older workers in the labour market?

15. Are any of the following acting as obstacles:

  • "Early retirement" culture;
  • Age of retirement too low;
  • Skills gaps of older workers;
  • Limited pension portability;
  • Cultural attitudes to older workers;
  • Taxation structures;
  • Legislation?

16. Is there effective legislation to combat discrimination in the labour market?

17. Is the age of retirement too low? Are there different compulsory retirement age cut-offs for male and female workers (would be discriminatory)?

18. Are there tax/pension incentives/disincentives towards working past the age of retirement?

19. Are there measures to facilitate the integration of older workers, particularly those re-entering the labour market?

20. Are 'actuarially neutral pensions' the norm? - Meaning that if people retire later in life (and contribute more) their pensions will be increased accordingly. 

Are the rules of pension schemes the same for both male and female workers?

21. Are there policies to promote personal savings and retirement plans for individuals, for women and men alike?

22. Do strict employment protection measures lead to lower hiring of older workers, and thus make it more difficult for older people to find a job?

EFFECTIVE LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION: MIGRANTS

23. Do the facilities exist for the appropriate recognition of overseas qualifications and skills of migrants?

24. Is there effective legislation to combat discrimination against migrant workers in the labour market?

25. Are there effective polices in place to better integrate migrants in society, as well as second-generation migrants, such as legislation and measures preventing discrimination in hiring?

EFFECTIVE LABOUR MARKET PARTICIPATION; DISABLED WORKERS

26. Is there effective legislation to combat discrimination against the disabled in the labour market?