12. PHYSICAL INFRASTRUCTURE

GOVERNMENT PROCESSES & POLICIES

1. Are there good examples of public investment in areas such as infrastructure, energy supply, education, and health that have directly paved the way for new industries to emerge?

  • Any example of how it has assisted export diversification?

2. Are major infrastructure projects characterized by efficient contracting, open bidding, regulatory credibility, and private and sound managerial capability?

3. Modernizing ports, maintaining and extending the network of highways and railways, increasing the supply of energy and telecommunications are areas in which private investment has or can have an important role in supplying goods and services. Has this been the case in your country?

4. Policy solutions require investment in local infrastructure and services to enable suppliers access domestic markets. However, care needs to be exercised in policy development. If for instance demand is very local, additional production induced by increased access to finance and lower cost of capital will reduce prices locally, undermining profit. Will this only reinforce the intense competition in these crowded markets? Any examples of this happening?

5. Are there any bottlenecks in key materials needed for infrastructure projects (e.g. cement)?

6. Are there sufficient skills available currently for infrastructure projects to proceed?

Public Private Partnerships (PPPs)

7. Increasingly, many countries are bypassing the constraints on publicly available funding by exploring private or joint public-private provision of infrastructure facilities. Any examples of effective public-private partnerships, particularly in the provision of such services as energy and water?

TRANSPORT

8. Is there adequate competition in the sector?

9. Is recent infrastructure development lowering travel time and reducing transport costs?

10. Do major infrastructure projects (new or upgrading existing infrastructure) provide sufficient opportunities for indigenous enterprises?

  • How administratively burdensome are tendering processes?

RURAL-URBAN LINKAGES

11. If there is a large agricultural sector, are there effective rural-urban linkage strategies?

12. Farms and rural enterprises frequently serve very local, restricted, and typically low-income markets. Does the infrastructure in place (or planned) enable them to reach out to richer and larger urban markets, on national or international scales? Are there national policy discussions on this issue? Are small farm operators and agri-producers, including women, involved in these national policy discussions?

GEOGRAPHY

13. If the country is landlocked, are transport linkages with neighbouring countries with seaports good?

14. Does infrastructure delay increased regional integration?

15. Are there any regional bodies dealing with these issues?

ELECTRICITY

16. Are enterprises reporting major losses due to power outages?

17. Is there competition in the sector?

18. How efficient are procedures for obtaining an electricity connection, along with the time and cost of completing them?

BASIC UTILITIES

19. Are there difficulties in getting basic utilities - a telephone landline, obtaining water connections, waste disposal, etc.?

20. Are fees for utility connections affordable?